Feline myeloma-related disorders (MRD) are rare neoplasms of plasma cells. The multistep transformation model of myeloma in humans is based on the premise that plasma cells undergo neoplastic transformation primarily within the intramedullary compartment and that over time they become poorly differentiated and metastasize to extramedullary locations. Historically, diagnostic criteria used for human multiple myeloma have been applied to the cat, with the assumption that feline MRD commonly arises in the intramedullary compartment. Our objectives were to describe the features of feline MRD confirmed by cytology, histopathology, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry and to categorize these tumors. A priori hypotheses were 1) tumor category predicts survival and 2) cats with well-differentiated tumors commonly have extramedullary involvement in contrast to human myeloma patients. This multicenter, retrospective study identified 26 MRD cases. There was good agreement between histopathologic and cytologic tumor categorization. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry were shown to be valuable adjunct tests in the diagnosis of MRD. Cats with well-differentiated tumors had increased median survival relative to those with poorly differentiated tumors (254 versus 14 days). We have reported that marked extramedullary involvement at initial clinical presentation is significantly more common in the cat than in human MRD patients. In this study, we demonstrate that cats with well-differentiated tumors more commonly have extramedullary involvement than human myeloma patients with well-differentiated tumors (90% versus 20%, P <0.0002). These results contrast strongly with the human myeloma model of primary intramedullary neoplastic transformation and suggest that primary extramedullary neoplastic transformation may be more common in feline MRD.