One of the defining features of mosquito vectors of arboviruses such as Dengue and Zika is their ability to tolerate high levels of virus proliferation without suffering significant pathology. This adaptation is central to vector competence and disease spread. The molecular mechanisms, pathways, cellular and metabolic adaptations responsible for mosquito disease tolerance are still largely unknown and may represent effective ways to control mosquito populations and prevent arboviral diseases. In this review article, we describe the key link between disease tolerance and pathogen transmission, and how vector control methods may benefit by focusing efforts on dissecting the mechanisms underlying mosquito tolerance of arboviral infections. We briefly review recent work investigating tolerance mechanisms in other insects, describe the state of the art regarding the mechanisms of disease tolerance in mosquitos, and highlight the emerging role of gut microbiota in mosquito immunity and disease tolerance.