How can we improve the pre-clinical development of drugs for stroke?

Emily Sena*, H. Bart van der Worp, David Howells, Malcolm Macleod

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

The development of stroke drugs has been characterized by success in animal studies and subsequent failure in clinical trials. Animal studies might have overstated efficacy, or clinical trials might have understated efficacy; in either case we need to better understand the reasons for failure. Techniques borrowed from clinical trials have recently allowed the impact of publication and study-quality biases on published estimates of efficacy in animal experiments to be described. On the basis of these data, we propose minimum standards for the range and quality of pre-clinical animal data. We believe the adoption of these standards will lead to improved effectiveness and efficiency in the selection of drugs for clinical trials in stroke and in the design of those trials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)433-439
Number of pages7
JournalTrends in Neurosciences
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2007


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