How gender- and violence-related norms affect self-esteem among adolescent refugee girls living in Ethiopia

L. Stark*, K. Asghar, I. Seff, B. Cislaghi, G. Yu, T. Tesfay Gassesse, J. Eoomkham, A. Assazenew Baysa, K. Falb

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Evidence suggests adolescent self-esteem is influenced by beliefs of how individuals in their reference group perceive them. However, few studies examine how gender- and violence-related social norms affect self-esteem among refugee populations. This paper explores relationships between gender inequitable and victim-blaming social norms, personal attitudes, and self-esteem among adolescent girls participating in a life skills program in three Ethiopian refugee camps.

Ordinary least squares multivariable regression analysis was used to assess the associations between attitudes and social norms, and self-esteem. Key independent variables of interest included a scale measuring personal attitudes toward gender inequitable norms, a measure of perceived injunctive norms capturing how a girl believed her family and community would react if she was raped, and a peer-group measure of collective descriptive norms surrounding gender inequity. The key outcome variable, self-esteem, was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale.

Girl's personal attitudes toward gender inequitable norms were not significantly predictive of self-esteem at endline, when adjusting for other covariates. Collective peer norms surrounding the same gender inequitable statements were significantly predictive of self-esteem at endline (ß = −0.130; p = 0.024). Additionally, perceived injunctive norms surrounding family and community-based sanctions for victims of forced sex were associated with a decline in self-esteem at endline (ß = −0.103; p = 0.014). Significant findings for collective descriptive norms and injunctive norms remained when controlling for all three constructs simultaneously.

Findings suggest shifting collective norms around gender inequity, particularly at the community and peer levels, may sustainably support the safety and well-being of adolescent girls in refugee settings.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2
Number of pages9
JournalGlobal Mental Health
Early online date17 Jan 2018
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • adolescent health
  • conflict
  • gender norms
  • resilience
  • self-esteem


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