How stable is the stratification of Higher Education in England and Scotland?

David Raffe, Linda Croxford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper asks whether the institutional hierarchies defined by ‘golden triangle’, other Russell Group, other pre-1992 and post-1992 universities in England, and by ancient, old and new universities in Scotland, have become weaker since the 1990s. Using indicators constructed from UCAS data for 1996-2010, it finds a stable hierarchical relationship among the sectors within each country, with some indicators showing a slight widening of status differences between sectors towards the end of the period. The main exception was a slight ‘upgrading’ of new (post-1992) universities in Scotland early in the period. There was little change in the association of institutional sector with social class, but in England the association with private secondary schools became slightly stronger and the association with ethnicity weakened.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)313-335
Number of pages23
JournalBritish Journal of Sociology of Education
Early online date25 Aug 2013
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2015


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