How to separate genetic and environmental causes of similarity between relatives

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Related individuals often have similar phenotypes, but this similarity may be due to the effects of shared environments as much as to the effects of shared genes. We consider here alternative approaches to separating the relative contributions of these two sources to phenotypic covariances, comparing experimental approaches such as cross-fostering, traditional statistical techniques and more complex statistical models, specifically the 'animal model'. Using both simulation studies and empirical data from wild populations, we demonstrate the ability of the animal model to reduce bias due to shared environment effects such as maternal or brood effects, especially where pedigrees contain multiple generations and immigration rates are low. However, where common environment effects are strong, a combination of both cross-fostering and an animal model provides the best way to avoid bias. We illustrate ways of partitioning phenotypic variance into components of additive genetic, maternal genetic, maternal environment, common environment, permanent environment and temporal effects, but also show how substantial confounding between these different effects may occur. Whilst the flexibility of the mixed model approach is extremely useful for incorporating the spatial, temporal and social heterogeneity typical of natural populations, the advantages will inevitably be restricted by the quality of pedigree information and care needs to be taken in specifying models that are appropriate to the data.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1890-1903
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Evolutionary Biology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2007


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