Humane Orientation as a New Cultural Dimension of the GLOBE Project: A Validation Study of the GLOBE Scale and Out-Group Humane Orientation in 25 Countries

Oliver Schloesser, Michael Frese, Anna-Maria Heintze, Musaed Al Najjar, Thomas Arciszewski, Elias Besevegis, George Bishop, Mirilia Bonnes, Chris Clegg, Ewa Drozda-Senkowska, Mauricio Gaborit, Dayra Garzon, Tia Hansen, Irena Heszen, Marta Juhász, Mary Keating, Wustari Mangundjaya, Norma Mansor, Jackie Mitchelson, Alejandra OrtizJanak Pandey, Ubolwanna Pavakanun, Vassilis Pavlopoulos, Jose Maria Peiró, Kristina Potocnik, Maria Helena Restrepo, Norbert Semmer, Antonio Tupinamba, Elizabeth Ventura, Matthew Whoolery, Kan Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We validate, extend, and empirically and theoretically criticize the cultural dimension of humane orientation of the project GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program, House et al., 2004). Theoretically, humane orientation is not just a one-dimensionally positive concept about being caring, altruistic, and kind to others as discussed by Kabaskal and Bodur (2004), but there is also a certain ambivalence to this concept. We suggest differentiating humane orientation toward in-group members from humane orientation toward out-group members. A multi-country construct validation study used students samples from 25 countries that were either high or low in humane orientation (N = 876), and studied their relation to the traditional GLOBE scale and other cultural-level measures (agreeableness, religiosity, authoritarianism, and welfare state score). Findings revealed a strong correlation between humane orientation and agreeableness, welfare state score, and religiosity. Out-group humane orientation proved to be the more relevant sub-facet of the original humane orientation construct, suggesting that future research on humane orientation should make use of this measure instead of the vague original scale. The ambivalent character of out-group humane orientation is displayed in its positive correlation to high authoritarianism. Patriotism was used as a control variable for non-critical acceptance of one’s society but did not change the correlations. Our findings are discussed as an example of how rigid expectations and a lack of tolerance for diversity may help explain the ambivalent nature of humane orientation.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Early online date7 Dec 2012
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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