Hydrogen Peroxide Versus Hydrogen Generation at Bipolar Pd/Au Nano-catalysts Grown into an Intrinsically Microporous Polyamine (PIM-EA-TB)

Lina Wang, Mariolino Carta, Richard Malpass-Evans, Neil B. McKeown, Philip J. Fletcher, Diana Lednitzky, Frank Marken*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Binding of PdCl42− into the polymer of intrinsic microporosity PIM-EA-TB (on a Nylon mesh substrate) followed by borohydride reduction leads to uncapped Pd(0) nano-catalysts with typically 3.2 ± 0.2 nm diameter embedded within the microporous polymer host structure. Spontaneous reaction of Pd(0) with formic acid and oxygen is shown to result in the competing formation of (i) hydrogen peroxide (at low formic acid concentration in air; with optimum H2O2 yield at 2 mM HCOOH), (ii) water, or (iii) hydrogen (at higher formic acid concentration or under argon). Next, a spontaneous electroless gold deposition process is employed to attach gold (typically 10- to 35-nm diameter) to the nano-palladium in PIM-EA-TB to give an order of magnitude enhanced production of H2O2 with high yields even at higher HCOOH concentration (suppressing hydrogen evolution). Pd and Au work hand-in-hand as bipolar electrocatalysts. A Clark probe method is developed to assess the catalyst efficiency (based on competing oxygen removal and hydrogen production) and a mass spectrometry method is developed to monitor/optimise the rate of production of hydrogen peroxide. Heterogenised Pd/Au@PIM-EA-TB catalysts are effective and allow easy catalyst recovery and reuse for hydrogen peroxide production. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)771-784
Number of pages14
JournalElectrocatalysis
Volume12
Issue number6
Early online date9 Oct 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 9 Oct 2021

Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Disinfection
  • Epoxidation
  • Heterogenised palladium
  • Hydrogen

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