PURPOSE: To provide a summary of the Third International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations for the management of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
METHODS: A detailed review of the literature was performed focusing on original articles for the management of NMIBC. An international committee assessed and graded the articles based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system. The entire spectrum of NMIBC was covered such as prognostic factors of recurrence and progression, risk stratification, staging, management of positive urine cytology with negative white light cystoscopy, indications of bladder and prostatic urethral biopsies, management of Ta low grade (LG) and high risk tumors (Ta high grade [HG], T1, carcinoma in situ [CIS]), impact of BCG strain and host on outcomes, management of complications of intravesical therapy, role of alternative therapies, indications for early cystectomy, surveillance strategies, and new treatments. The working group provides several recommendations on the management of NMIBC.
RESULTS: Recommendations were summarized with regard to staging; management of primary and recurrent LG Ta and high risk disease, positive urine cytology with negative white light cystoscopy and prostatic urethral involvement; indications for timely cystectomy; and surveillance strategies.
CONCLUSION: NMIBC remains a common and challenging malignancy to manage. Accurate staging, grading, and risk stratification are critical determinants of the management and outcomes of these patients. Current tools for risk stratification are limited but informative, and should be used in clinical practice when determining diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment of NMIBC.
- Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use
- Administration, Intravesical
- BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use
- Carcinoma in Situ/pathology
- Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology
- Disease Progression
- Neoplasm Grading
- Neoplasm Invasiveness
- Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
- Neoplasm Staging
- Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology