Identifying active vascular microcalcification by (18)F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography

Agnese Irkle, Alex T Vesey, David Y Lewis, Jeremy N Skepper, Joseph L E Bird, Marc R Dweck, Francis R Joshi, Ferdia A Gallagher, Elizabeth A Warburton, Martin R Bennett, Kevin M Brindle, David E Newby, James H Rudd, Anthony P Davenport

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Vascular calcification is a complex biological process that is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. While macrocalcification confers plaque stability, microcalcification is a key feature of high-risk atheroma and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Positron emission tomography and X-ray computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging of atherosclerosis using (18)F-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF) has the potential to identify pathologically high-risk nascent microcalcification. However, the precise molecular mechanism of (18)F-NaF vascular uptake is still unknown. Here we use electron microscopy, autoradiography, histology and preclinical and clinical PET/CT to analyse (18)F-NaF binding. We show that (18)F-NaF adsorbs to calcified deposits within plaque with high affinity and is selective and specific. (18)F-NaF PET/CT imaging can distinguish between areas of macro- and microcalcification. This is the only currently available clinical imaging platform that can non-invasively detect microcalcification in active unstable atherosclerosis. The use of (18)F-NaF may foster new approaches to developing treatments for vascular calcification.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7495
JournalNature Communications
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jul 2015


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