The immunohistochemical expression of topoisomerase IIbeta binding protein 1 (TopBP1) was examined in 123 feline mammary lesions (18 non-neoplastic lesions including six fibroadenomatous hyperplasia and 12 duct ectasia, 17 adenomas and 88 carcinomas) in relation to histological grade, oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) status, proliferation index (Ki67) and p53 expression. There was positive staining for TopBP1 in 122 of 123 feline mammary lesions, although nine samples had fewer than 20% positive cells. The percentage of cells positive for TopBP1 increased with histological grade. Most staining was nuclear but both nuclear and cytoplasmic staining was observed as the degree of malignancy increased. TopBP1 is expressed in feline mammary tumours and its expression is correlated with histological grade. Many neoplasms which over-express p53 or are ERalpha negative show TopBP1 immunoreactivity.