Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

Hannah V. Siddle, Jim Kaufman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response toallografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently activein the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT),which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD),among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-spe-cific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil’s immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population.To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immuno-suppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how the setumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-20
JournalImmunology
Volume144
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Sep 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • cancer
  • comparative immunology/evolution
  • MHC
  • transplantation
  • tumour immunology

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