IMPACT-Global Hip Fracture Audit: Nosocomial infection, risk prediction and prognostication, minimum reporting standards and global collaborative audit: Lessons from an international multicentre study of 7,090 patients conducted in 14 nations during the COVID-19 pandemic

Andrew J. Hall, Nicholas D Clement, IMPACT-Global Group, Cristina Ojeda-Thies, Alasdair M J MacLullich, Giuseppe Toro, Antony Johansen, Tim O White, Andrew Duckworth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Aims: This international study aimed to assess: 1) the prevalence of preoperative and postoperative COVID-19 among patients with hip fracture, 2) the effect on 30-day mortality, and 3) clinical factors associated with the infection and with mortality in COVID-19-positive patients.

Methods: A multicentre collaboration among 112 centres in 14 countries collected data on all patients presenting with a hip fracture between 1st March-31st May 2020. Demographics, residence, place of injury, presentation blood tests, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, time to surgery, management, ASA grade, length of stay, COVID-19 and 30-day mortality status were recorded.

Results: A total of 7090 patients were included, with a mean age of 82.2 (range 50-104) years and 4959 (69.9%) being female. Of 651 (9.2%) patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 225 (34.6%) were positive at presentation and 426 (65.4%) were positive postoperatively. Positive COVID-19 status was independently associated with male sex (odds ratio (OR) 1.38, p = 0.001), residential care (OR 2.15, p < 0.001), inpatient fall (OR 2.23, p = 0.003), cancer (OR 0.63, p = 0.009), ASA grades 4 (OR 1.59, p = 0.008) or 5 (OR 8.28, p < 0.001), and longer admission (OR 1.06 for each increasing day, p < 0.001). Patients with COVID-19 at any time had a significantly lower chance of 30-day survival versus those without COVID-19 (72.7% versus 92.6%, p < 0.001). COVID-19 was independently associated with an increased 30-day mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) 2.83, p < 0.001). Increasing age (HR 1.03, p = 0.028), male sex (HR 2.35, p < 0.001), renal disease (HR 1.53, p = 0.017), and pulmonary disease (HR 1.45, p = 0.039) were independently associated with a higher 30-day mortality risk in patients with COVID-19 when adjusting for confounders.

Conclusion: The prevalence of COVID-19 in hip fracture patients during the first wave of the pandemic was 9%, and was independently associated with a three-fold increased 30-day mortality risk. Among COVID-19-positive patients, those who were older, male, with renal or pulmonary disease had a significantly higher 30-day mortality risk.

Keywords: Audit; COVID-19; Communicable disease; Frailty; Geriatric; Hip fracture; Infection; Meta-audit; Nosocomial; Orthopaedic; Outcomes; Prognosis; Reporting standards; Risk; Trauma.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e429-e446
JournalThe Surgeon
Volume20
Issue number6
Early online date28 Mar 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • COVID-19/epidemiology
  • Cross Infection/complications
  • Female
  • Hip Fractures/epidemiology
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics
  • Retrospective Studies

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