Why undertake this review? At the Scottish HPV Reference laboratory we deliver HPV testing for epidemiological, clinical and research work-streams. We also serve as a hub for enquiries relating to HPV, HPV testing and the consequences of infection. Enquiries are varied but have included those around the detection and implications of HPV infection in childhood and the rationale/justification for HPV testing in cases of suspected child sexual abuse (CSA). Given these enquiries, the sensitive nature of the issues and legal implications associated, we took the opportunity to review the evidence on the origins and implications of HPV infection in children and to highlight any key knowledge gaps. To this end we provide a summary document that will hopefully be of use to clinicians.