Improved Dynamical Masses for Six Brown Dwarf Companions Using Hipparcos and Gaia EDR3

G. Mirek Brandt, Trent J. Dupuy, Yiting Li, Minghan Chen, Timothy D. Brandt, Tin Long Sunny Wong, Thayne Currie, Brendan P. Bowler, Michael C. Liu, William M. J. Best, Mark W. Phillips

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We present comprehensive orbital analyses and dynamical masses for the substellar companions Gl 229 B, Gl 758 B, HD 13724 B, HD 19467 B, HD 33632 Ab, and HD 72946 B. Our dynamical fits incorporate radial velocities, relative astrometry, and most importantly calibrated Hipparcos-Gaia EDR3 accelerations. For HD 33632 A and HD 72946 we perform three-body fits that account for
their outer stellar companions. We present new relative astrometry of Gl 229 B with Keck/NIRC2, extending its observed baseline to 25 years. We obtain a <1% mass measurement of 71:4±0:6MJup for the first T dwarf Gl 229 B and a 1.2% mass measurement of its host star (0:579±0:007M) that agrees with the high-mass-end of the M dwarf mass-luminosity relation. We perform a homogeneous analysis of the host stars' ages and use them, along with the companions' measured masses and luminosities, to test substellar evolutionary models. Gl 229 B is the most discrepant, as models predict that an object this massive cannot cool to such a low luminosity within a Hubble time, implying that it
may be an unresolved binary. The other companions are generally consistent with models, except for HD 13724 B that has a host-star activity age 3.8σ older than its substellar cooling age. Examining our results in context with other mass-age-luminosity benchmarks, we find no trend with spectral type
but instead note that younger or lower-mass brown dwarfs are over-luminous compared to models, while older or higher-mass brown dwarfs are under-luminous. The presented mass measurements for some companions are so precise that the stellar host ages, not the masses, limit the analysis.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 14 Sep 2021

Keywords

  • astro-ph.SR
  • astro-ph.EP

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