Improving Risk Stratification for Patients with Type 2 Myocardial Infarction

Caelan Taggart*, Karla Monterrubio-Gomez*, Andreas Roos, Jasper Boeddinghaus, Dorien Kimenai, Erik Kadesjo, Anda Bularga, Ryan Wereski, Amy Ferry, Matthew Lowry, Atul Anand, Kuan Ken Lee, Dimitrios Doudesis, Ioanna Manolopoulou, Thomas Nestelberger, Luca Koechlin, Pedro Lopez-Ayala, Christian Mueller , Nicholas L Mills, Catalina A VallejosAndrew R Chapman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Despite poor cardiovascular outcomes, there are no dedicated, validated risk stratification tools to guide investigation or treatment in type 2 myocardial infarction.

The goal of this study was to derive and validate a risk stratification tool for the prediction of death or future myocardial infarction in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction.

The T2-risk score was developed in a prospective multicenter cohort of consecutive patients with type 2 myocardial infarction. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed for the primary outcome of myocardial infarction or death at 1 year using variables selected a priori based on clinical importance. Discrimination was assessed by area under the receiving-operating characteristic curve (AUC). Calibration was investigated graphically. The tool was validated in a single-center cohort of consecutive patients and in a multicenter cohort study from sites across Europe.

There were 1,121, 250, and 253 patients in the derivation, single-center, and multicenter validation cohorts, with the primary outcome occurring in 27% (297 of 1,121), 26% (66 of 250), and 14% (35 of 253) of patients, respectively. The T2-risk score incorporating age, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, myocardial ischemia on electrocardiogram, heart rate, anemia, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and maximal cardiac troponin concentration had good discrimination (AUC: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.73-0.79) for the primary outcome and was well calibrated. Discrimination was similar in the consecutive patient (AUC: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.77-0.88) and multicenter (AUC: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.64-0.83) cohorts. T2-risk provided improved discrimination over the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events 2.0 risk score in all cohorts.

The T2-risk score performed well in different health care settings and could help clinicians to prognosticate, as well as target investigation and preventative therapies more effectively. (High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome [High-STEACS]; NCT01852123)
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)156-168
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number2
Early online date9 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jan 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • risk prediction
  • type 2 myocardial infarction


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