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The development of robust implantable sensors is important in the successful advancement of personalised medicine as they have the potential to provide in situ real-time data regarding the status of health and disease and the effectiveness of treatment. Tissue pH is a key physiological parameter and herein, we report the design, fabrication, functionalisation, encapsulation and protection of a miniaturised self-contained electrochemical pH sensor system and characterisation of sensor performance. Notably for the first time in this environment the pH sensor was based on a methylene blue redox reporter which showed remarkable robustness and accuracy and sensitivity. This was achieved by encapsulation of a self-assembled monolayer containing methylene blue entrapped within a Nafion layer. Another powerful feature was the incorporation, within the same implanted device, of a fabricated on-chip Ag/AgCl reference electrode – vital in any electrochemical sensor, but often ignored. When utilised in vivo, the sensor allowed accurate tracking of externally induced pH changes within a naturally occurring ovine lung cancer model, and correlated well with single point laboratory measurements made on extracted arterial blood, whilst enabling in vivo time-dependent measurements. The sensors functioned robustly whilst implanted, and maintained in vitro function once extracted and together, these results demonstrate proof-of-concept of the ability to sense real-time intratumoral tissue pH changes in vivo.
|Journal||Biosensors and Bioelectronics|
|Early online date||1 Nov 2021|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 1 Nov 2021|
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- 2 Finished
Implantable Microsystems for Personalised Anti-Cancer Therapy
Murray, A., Smith, S. & Walton, A.
27/05/13 → 31/05/19
Data for paper entitled:‘In vivo application of an implantable tri-anchored methylene blue-based electrochemical pH sensor’
Murray, A. (Creator), Mount, A. (Creator), Gonzalez-Fernandez, E. (Creator) & Bradley, M. (Creator), Edinburgh DataShare, 31 Jan 2022