Incidence and risk factors for poor ankle functional recovery, and the development and progression of posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis after significant ankle ligament injury (SALI): The SALI cohort study protocol

Thomas Bestwick-Stevenson, Laura A Wyatt, Debbie Palmer, Angela Ching, Robert Kerslake, Frank Coffey, Mark E Batt, Brigitte E Scammell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Ankle sprains are one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries, accounting for up to 5% of all Emergency Department visits in the United Kingdom. Ankle injury may be associated with future ankle osteoarthritis. Up to 70% of ankle osteoarthritis cases may be associated with previous ankle injury. There is limited research regarding the association between ankle sprain and ankle osteoarthritis development. The current study aims to phenotype those who suffer significant ankle ligament injuries, identify potential risk factors for ankle injuries and subsequent poor recovery, examine why individuals may develop osteoarthritis, and what factors influence this chance.
Methods: In this multicentre cohort study participants were recruited from nine Emergency Departments and two Urgent Care Centres in the United Kingdom. Participants (aged 18–70 years old) were defined as those who had suffered an isolated acute ankle sprain, which was Ottawa Ankle Rules positive, but negative for a significant ankle fracture on x-ray. Age and sex matched controls were also recruited. The controls were individuals who had not suffered a significant ankle injury, including ankle pain, function affected for more than 7 days, or the ankle caused them to report to an Emergency Department. Data is collected through a series of seven questionnaires (at baseline, 3 months, 1 year, 3 years, 5 years, 10 years, and 15 years later). The questionnaires include four sections (demographic questions; index injury, and injury history questions; functional assessment questions; and quality of life questions) and are designed to collect detailed information about the individual, their injury, potential risk factors for ankle sprains and ankle osteoarthritis, plus their medical history and any medication consumed.
Discussion: The Significant Ankle Ligament Injury (SALI) study aims to add to the limited knowledge regarding which factors can predict ankle sprains, complaints, and osteoarthritis. This is important because despite ankle sprains being regarded as a benign injury that resolves quickly, residual symptoms are not uncommon months and years after the injury.
Original languageEnglish
Article number362
Number of pages11
JournalBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Volume22
Issue number1
Early online date17 Apr 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • ankle sprain
  • osteoarthritis
  • injury
  • cohort study
  • study protocol

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