Incidence and risk factors for surgical glove perforation in small animal ophthalmic surgery

Paola Azzurra Massidda, Jesus Diaz, Roser Tetas Pont, Rachael Grundon, Federico Corletto, Benjamin Blacklock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To determine the incidence of perforation of surgical gloves and identify associated risk factors that contribute to glove perforation in small animal ophthalmic surgery Study design: Observational cohort study. Sample population: Surgical gloves (n=2000) collected following 765 small animal ophthalmic procedures. Methods: All the gloves were tested for perforation at the end of the procedure using a water leak test. The potential risk factors for glove perforation were recorded, and associations 36 between these risk factors and perforation were explored using univariable (Fisher’s exact test) and mixed effect logistic regression analysis. Results were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results: Glove perforation was detected in 6% of procedures. Glove perforation was 1.97 (95% CI 0.98-4.22) times more likely in extraocular than in intraocular surgeries (7.3% vs. 3.9%; p=0.0462). The incidence of perforations was not statistically different between main and assistant surgeon (p=0.86). No significant association was found between the risk of glove perforation and duration of the procedure (p=0.13). Perforation of the non-dominant hand was 2.6 (95% CI 1.38-4.98) times more likely than the dominant hand (74% vs. 26%; p=0.0028). Only 22% of the perforations were detected intraoperatively. Multivariable analysis identified only extraocular surgery as a risk factor for perforations. Conclusions: There is a low incidence of glove perforation in small animal ophthalmic surgery, but extra care of the non-dominant hand is required, especially during extraocular procedures
Original languageEnglish
JournalVeterinary ophthalmology
Early online date20 Jul 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Jul 2020


  • extra ocular
  • non-dominant
  • fore finger
  • thumb
  • needle
  • water leak test


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