AIM: To conduct a systematic literature review of the existing evidence on incidence, characteristics and outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in patients with psychiatric illness.
METHODS: We searched Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and Web of Science using a comprehensive electronic search strategy to identify observational studies reporting on OHCA incidence, characteristics or outcomes by psychiatric illness status. One reviewer screened all titles and abstracts, and a second reviewer screened a random 10%. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction and quality assessment.
RESULTS: Our search retrieved 11,380 studies, 10 of which met our inclusion criteria (8 retrospective cohort studies and two nested case-control studies). Three studies focused on depression, whilst seven included various psychiatric conditions. Among patients with an OHCA, those with psychiatric illness (compared to those without) were more likely to have: an arrest in a private location; an unwitnessed arrest; more comorbidities; less bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and an initial non-shockable rhythm. Two studies reported on OHCA incidence proportion and two reported on survival, showing higher risk, but lower survival, in patients with psychiatric illness.
CONCLUSION: Psychiatric illness in relation to OHCA incidence and outcomes has rarely been studied and only a handful of studies have reported on OHCA characteristics, highlighting the need for further research in this area. The scant existing literature suggests that psychiatric illness may be associated with higher risks of OHCA, unfavourable characteristics and poorer survival. Future studies should further investigate these links and the role of potential contributory factors such as socioeconomic status and comorbidities.
- Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
- Psychiatric illness
- Systematic review