Chlamydia/Chlamydophila are a family of intracellular gram-negative bacteria that infect their hosts primarily via mucosal epithelia. Chronic disease associated with bacterial persistence, inflammation and tissue damage are common sequelae of infection with these organisms. Human epithelial cell lines respond to infection by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, and upregulating the expression of mRNA encoding Ikappa-Balpha, the endogenous inhibitor of NF-kappaB. However, Ikappa-Balpha is not upregulated in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The failure of epithelial cells to respond to LPS is associated with the absence of surface expression of CD14. Identification of the components of Chlamydia/Chlamydophila that can induce pro-inflammatory mediators coupled with the mechanisms by which epithelial cells detect infection and respond accordingly will advance the development of preventative strategies.
- Chlamydia Infections
- Chlamydophila Infections
- Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
- HeLa Cells
- I-kappa B Proteins