Inhibition of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger with cariporide to prevent myocardial infarction in high-risk ischemic situations. Main results of the GUARDIAN trial. Guard during ischemia against necrosis (GUARDIAN) Investigators

P Théroux, B R Chaitman, N Danchin, L Erhardt, T Meinertz, J S Schroeder, G Tognoni, H D White, J T Willerson, A Jessel, Gordon Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The transmembrane sodium/hydrogen exchanger maintains myocardial cell pH integrity during myocardial ischemia but paradoxically may precipitate cell necrosis. The development of cariporide, a potent and specific inhibitor of the exchanger, prompted this investigation of the potential of the drug to prevent myocardial cell necrosis.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 11 590 patients with unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) or undergoing high-risk percutaneous or surgical revascularization were randomized to receive placebo or 1 of 3 doses of cariporide for the period of risk. The trial failed to document benefit of cariporide over placebo on the primary end point of death or MI assessed after 36 days. Doses of 20 and 80 mg every 8 hours had no effect, whereas a dose of 120 mg was associated with a 10% risk reduction (98% CI 5.5% to 23.4%, P=0.12). With this dose, benefit was limited to patients undergoing bypass surgery (risk reduction 25%, 95% CI 3.1% to 41.5%, P=0.03) and was maintained after 6 months. No effect was seen on mortality. The rate of Q-wave MI was reduced by 32% across all entry diagnostic groups (2.6% versus 1.8%, P=0.03), but the rate of non-Q-wave MI was reduced only in patients undergoing surgery (7.1% versus 3.8%, P=0.005). There were no increases in clinically serious adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS: No significant benefit of cariporide could be demonstrated across a wide range of clinical situations of risk. The trial documented safety of the drug and suggested that a high degree of inhibition of the exchanger could prevent cell necrosis in settings of ischemia-reperfusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3032-8
Number of pages7
JournalCirculation
Volume102
Issue number25
Publication statusPublished - 19 Dec 2000

Keywords

  • Aged
  • Angina Pectoris
  • Coronary Artery Bypass
  • Female
  • Guanidines
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Myocardial Ischemia
  • Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter
  • Sulfones

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Inhibition of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger with cariporide to prevent myocardial infarction in high-risk ischemic situations. Main results of the GUARDIAN trial. Guard during ischemia against necrosis (GUARDIAN) Investigators'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this