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We model a shear-thickening fluid that combines a tendency to form inhomogeneous, shear-banded flows with a slow relaxational dynamics for fluid microstructure. The interplay between these factors gives rich dynamics, with periodic regimes ( oscillating bands, travelling bands, and more complex oscillations) and spatiotemporal rheochaos. These phenomena, arising from constitutive nonlinearity not inertia, can occur even when the steady-state flow curve is monotonic. Our model also shows rheochaos in a low-dimensional truncation where sharply defined shear bands cannot form.