Insulin Resistance and Truncal Obesity as Important Determinants of the Greater Incidence of Diabetes in Indian Asians and African Caribbeans Compared With Europeans: The Southall And Brent REvisited (SABRE) cohort

Therese Tillin, Alun D. Hughes, Ian F. Godsland, Peter Whincup, Nita G. Forouhi, Paul Welsh, Naveed Sattar, Paul M. McKeigue, Nish Chaturvedi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE
To determine the extent of, and reasons for, ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes incidence in the U.K.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Population-based triethnic cohort. Participants were without diabetes, aged 40-69 at baseline (1989-1991), and followed-up for 20 years. Baseline measurements included fasting and postglucose bloods, anthropometry, and lifestyle questionnaire. Incident diabetes was identified from medical records and participant recall. Ethnic differences in diabetes incidence were examined using competing risks regression.

RESULTS
Incident diabetes was identified in 196 of 1,354 (14%) Europeans, 282 of 839 (34%) Indian Asians, and 100 of 335 (30%) African Caribbeans. All Indian Asians and African Caribbeans were first-generation migrants. Compared with Europeans, age-adjusted subhazard ratios (SHRs [95% CI]) for men and women, respectively, were 2.88 (95%, 2.36-3.53; P <0.001) and 1.91 (1.18-3.10; P = 0.008) in Indian Asians, and 2.23 (1.64-3.03; P <0.001) and 2.51 (1.63-3.87; P <0.001) in African Caribbeans. Differences in baseline insulin resistance and truncal obesity largely attenuated the ethnic minority excess in women (adjusted SHRs: Indian Asians 0.77 [0.49-1.42]; P = 0.3; African Caribbeans 1.48 [0.89-2.45]; P = 0.13), but not inmen (adjusted SHRs: Indian Asians 1.98 [1.52-2.58]; P <0.001 and African Caribbeans, 2.05 [1.46-2.89; P <0.001]).

CONCLUSIONS
Insulin resistance and truncal obesity account for the twofold excess incidence of diabetes in Indian Asian and African Caribbean women, but not men. Explanations for the excess diabetes risk in ethnic minority men remains unclear. Further study requires more precise measures of conventional risk factors and identification of novel risk factors. Diabetes Care 36:383-393, 2013

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)383-393
Number of pages11
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume36
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2013

Keywords

  • RISK
  • SENSITIVITY
  • ATHEROSCLEROSIS
  • ETHNIC-GROUPS
  • C-PEPTIDE
  • BODY-FAT
  • NON-HISPANIC WHITES
  • CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE
  • AMERICANS
  • IMPAIRED GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE

Cite this