Integrated detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactam resistance by DNA microarray-based genotyping of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M genes

Dirk M Leinberger, Verena Grimm, Maya Rubtsova, Jan Weile, Klaus Schröppel, Thomas A Wichelhaus, Cornelius Knabbe, Rolf D Schmid, Till T Bachmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) of the TEM, SHV, or CTX-M type confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in gram-negative bacteria. The activity of these enzymes against beta-lactam antibiotics and their resistance against inhibitors can be influenced by genetic variation at the single-nucleotide level. Here, we describe the development and validation of an oligonucleotide microarray for the rapid identification of ESBLs in gram-negative bacteria by simultaneously genotyping bla(TEM), bla(SHV), and bla(CTX-M). The array consists of 618 probes that cover mutations responsible for 156 amino acid substitutions. As this comprises unprecedented genotyping coverage, the ESBL array has a high potential for epidemiological studies and infection control. With an assay time of 5 h, the ESBL microarray also could be an attractive option for the development of rapid antimicrobial resistance tests in the future. The validity of the DNA microarray was demonstrated with 60 blinded clinical isolates, which were collected during clinical routines. Fifty-eight of them were characterized phenotypically as ESBL producers. The chip was characterized with regard to its resolution, phenotype-genotype correlation, and ability to resolve mixed genotypes. ESBL phenotypes could be correctly ascribed to ESBL variants of bla(CTX-M) (76%), bla(SHV) (22%), or both (2%), whereas no ESBL variant of bla(TEM) was found. The most prevalent ESBLs identified were CTX-M-15 (57%) and SHV-12 (18%).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)460-471
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Clinical Microbiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Bacteria
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Humans
  • Microarray Analysis
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • beta-Lactam Resistance
  • beta-Lactamases


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