Integrating Latent Load into the Cooling Degree Days Concept for Current and Future Weather Projections

Sajid Mehmood*, Khuram Pervez Amber, Muhammad Usman, Daniel Friedrich

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Rising temperatures, increase in population, and dense urban morphology have resulted in increased cooling energy demands. The conventional degree-days method to calculate cooling energy demand considers only the sensible heat load of air and neglects the latent component. This study aims to estimate the cooling degree days based on the heat index (by considering both the sensible and latent loads) for the current and future years (2050 and 2080). Further, the ventilation load index for each of these cities has been established to unlock the impact of ventilation on the building’s total energy consumption for current and future years. The results show that heat index- based degree days have a stronger relationship with the buildings’ cooling energy consumption and, therefore, can predict the cooling energy demand of buildings with 20% higher accuracy than conventional temperature-based degree days. Analysis shows that cooling degree-days and frequency of temperature above the comfort range continue to increase in Pakistan, highlighting increased degree-days in the range from 11.0 to 41.6% by 2050 and from 28.4 to 126.5% by 2080. Prompt actions are essential to enhance the resilience of Pakistan’s national grid to meet these future cooling energy demands.
Original languageEnglish
Article number106
Issue number1
Early online date31 Dec 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 31 Dec 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Cooling degree days
  • Buildings
  • Climate change
  • Heat index
  • Ventilation load index


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