Interaction between the nasal microbiota and S. pneumoniae in the context of live-attenuated influenza vaccine

Wouter A. A. De Steenhuijsen Piters, Simon P. Jochems, Elena Mitsi, Jamie Rylance, Sherin Pojar, Elissavet Nikolaou, Esther L. German, Mark Holloway, Beatriz F. Carniel, Mei Ling J. N. Chu, Kayleigh Arp, Elisabeth A. M. Sanders, Daniela M. Ferreira, Debby Bogaert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


S. pneumoniae is the main bacterial pathogen involved in pneumonia. Pneumococcal acquisition and colonization density is likely affected by viral co-infections, the local microbiome composition and mucosal immunity. Here, we report the interactions between live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), successive pneumococcal challenge, and the healthy adult nasal microbiota and mucosal immunity using a human experimental challenge model. Nasal microbiota profiles at baseline are associated with consecutive pneumococcal carriage outcome (non-carrier, low-dense and high-dense pneumococcal carrier), independent of LAIV co-administration. Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominated profiles are associated with low-density colonization. Lowest rates of natural viral co-infection at baseline and post-LAIV influenza replication are detected in the low-density carriers. Also, we observed the fewest microbiota perturbations and mucosal cytokine responses in the low-density carriers compared to non-carriers or high-density carriers. These results indicate that the complete respiratory ecosystem affects pneumococcal behaviour following challenge, with low-density carriage representing the most stable ecological state.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jul 2019

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