Interactions between tidal stream turbine arrays and their hydrodynamic impact around Zhoushan Island, China

Jisheng Zhang, Can Zhang*, Athanasios Angeloudis, Stephan C. Kramer, Rui He, Matthew D. Piggott

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Tidal currents represent an attractive renewable energy source particularly because of their predictability. Prospective tidal stream development sites are often co-located in close proximity. Under such circumstances, in order to maximise the exploitation of the resource, multiple tidal stream turbine arrays working in tandem would be needed. In this paper, a continuous array optimisation approach based on the open source coastal ocean modelling framework Thetis is applied to derive optimal configurations for four turbine arrays around Zhoushan Islands, Zhejiang Province, China. Alternative optimisation scenarios are tested to investigate interactions between the turbine arrays and their hydrodynamic footprint. Results show that there are no obvious competition effects between these four arrays around Hulu and Taohua Island. However, significant interactions could arise among the three turbine arrays situated around Hulu Island, with a maximum decrease in average power of 42.2%. By optimising all turbine arrays simultaneously, the competition effects can be minimised and the cost of energy reduced as less turbines are required to deliver an equivalent energy output. As for the potential environmental impact, it is found that the turbine array around Taohua Island would affect a larger area than turbine arrays around Hulu Island.
Original languageEnglish
Article number110431
JournalOcean Engineering
Early online date14 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2022


  • tidal stream energy
  • multi-arrays
  • optimisation
  • competition effect
  • Hydrodynamic impact


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