OBJECTIVE: Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, potentially through the actions of proinflammatory cytokines. We assessed the direct effects of local intra-arterial tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6, and endotoxin on blood flow and endogenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release in vivo in humans.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, blood flow, plasma cytokine, and fibrinolytic parameters were measured using venous occlusion plethysmography and blood sampling. Ten subjects received intrabrachial TNF-alpha, interleukin-6, and endotoxin infusions, and 8 additional subjects received intrabrachial infusions of bradykinin, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside after pretreatment with TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha but not interleukin-6, endotoxin, or placebo caused a gradual and sustained approximately 20-fold increase in plasma t-PA concentrations (P<0.001) that was associated with elevated plasma interleukin-6 concentrations (P<0.05) but without an effect on blood flow or plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 antigen. Compared with placebo, TNF-alpha pretreatment impaired bradykinin- and acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation (P<0.03) and resulted in a doubling of bradykinin-induced t-PA release (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Intra-arterial TNF-alpha causes an acute local vascular inflammation that is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasomotion as well as a sustained and substantial increase in endothelial t-PA release. TNF-alpha has potentially both adverse vasomotor and beneficial profibrinolytic effects on endothelial function.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Apr 2003|
- Brachial Artery
- Double-Blind Method
- Endothelium, Vascular
- Injections, Intra-Arterial
- Tissue Plasminogen Activator
- Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha