The next generation of nonvolatile memory storage may well be based on resistive switching in metal oxides. TiO2 as transition metal oxide has been widely used as active layer for the fabrication of a variety of multistate memory nanostructure devices. However, progress in their technological development has been inhibited by the lack of a thorough understanding of the underlying switching mechanisms. Here, we employed high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) combined with two-dimensional energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (2D EDX) to provide a novel, nanoscale view of the mechanisms involved. Our results suggest that the switching mechanism involves redistribution of both Ti and O ions within the active layer combined with an overall loss of oxygen that effectively render conductive filaments. Our study shows evidence of titanium movement in a 10 nm TiO2 thin-film through direct EDX mapping that provides a viable starting point for the improvement of the robustness and lifetime of TiO2-based resistive random access memory (RRAM).
- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
- resistive memory
- resistive switching
- thin films
- titanium dioxide