Involvement of Ets, rel and Sp1-like proteins in lipopolysaccharide-mediated activation of the HIV-1 LTR in macrophages

M J Sweet, K J Stacey, I L Ross, M C Ostrowski, D A Hume

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The HIV-1 promoter was used as a model to identify transcription factors involved in LPS-dependent transcription in RAW 264 murine macrophages. Expression plasmids for Ets-2 and PU.1 trans-activated the HIV-1 LTR and recombinant PU.1 and an Ets-2 DNA binding domain/GST fusion protein bound to the 5' kappa B site of the HIV-1 enhancer. Ets-2 mRNA was LPS-inducible in RAW 264 cells and LPS stimulated phosphorylation of threonine 72 residue within the Ets-2 pointed domain. Induction of Ets-2 and other LPS-responsive transcription factors was also observed upon addition of plasmid DNA, which complicates interpretation of transient transfections. The proximal promoter region, containing two Sp1 sites, was also LPS-responsive. We propose that the kappa B elements and the tandem Sp1 sites act as LPS response elements and that kappa B-mediated LPS action involves Ets and rel factors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-83
Number of pages17
JournalInternational journal of inflammation
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1998


  • Animals
  • Binding Sites
  • Cell Line
  • DNA
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • HIV Long Terminal Repeat
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Macrophages
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B
  • Plasmids
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-2
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Transfection

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