Functional coupling and comparative genomics analysis have been applied to study functional associations of orthologs of enterococcal cAD1 sex pheromone (P13268) known to be responsible for biofilm formation, conjugative plasmid transfer and spreading of bacterial antibiotics resistance. cAD1 peptide pheromone is released from the membrane lipoprotein with the peptide precursor encoded by a gene cad (tr|C2JQE7). Our analysis of genomic neighbourhood of cad and motifs of the encoded polypeptide and its orthologs suggests a close functional association between cAD1 and ApbE protein (Q82Z24), a FMN insertion and trafficking facilitator. The cad and apbE orthologs were coupled in the genomes and ApbE-specific motifs for FMN covalent attachment were identified in cad-encoded protein sequence and its orthologs. These findings suggest a potential role of FMN-based reductase function of the cAD1 lipoprotein precursor in its processing and release of the active sex pheromone peptide. They may lead to a new approach in prevention of antibiotic resistance spread via targeting sex pheromone processing chaperones or by suppression of the FMN availability and covalent binding. This methods can be also applied to a controlled evolution of bacterial pathogenicity in microbial fuel cells, as the findings suggest the crosstalk between bacterial pathogenicity and bacterial electro-activity.
- redox metabolism