Isothermal folding of G-quadruplexes

Robert D Gray, Jonathan B Chaires

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Thermodynamic studies of G-quadruplex stability are an essential complement to structures obtained by NMR or X-ray crystallography. An understanding of the energetics of quadruplex folding provides a necessary foundation for the physical interpretation of quadruplex formation and reactivity. While thermal denaturation methods are most commonly used to evaluate quadruplex stability, it is also possible to study folding using isothermal titration methods. G-quadruplex folding is tightly coupled to specific cation binding. We describe here protocols for monitoring the cation-driven quadruplex folding transition using circular dichroism or absorbance, and for determination of the distribution of free and bound cation using a fluorescence indicator. Together these approaches provide insight into quadruplex folding at constant temperature, and characterize the linkage between cation binding and folding.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2012


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