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Langevin dynamics is a versatile stochastic model used in biology, chemistry, engineering, physics and computer science. Traditionally, in thermal equilibrium, one assumes (i) the forces are given as the gradient of a potential and (ii) a fluctuation-dissipation relation holds between stochastic and dissipative forces; these assumptions ensure that the system samples a prescribed invariant Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution for a specified target temperature. In this article, we relax these assumptions, incorporating variable friction and temperature parameters and allowing nonconservative force fields, for which the form of the stationary state is typically not known a priori. We examine theoretical issues such as stability of the steady state and ergodic properties, as well as practical aspects such as the design of numerical methods for stochastic particle models. Applications to nonequilibrium systems with thermal gradients and active particles are discussed.