Latent class analysis of the short and long form of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire: Further examination of patient subgroups

Graciela Rovner, Kevin E. Vowles, Björn Gerdle, David Gillanders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

A substantial literature indicates that pain acceptance is a useful behavioral process in chronic pain rehabilitation. Pain acceptance consists of willingness to experience pain and to engage in important activities even in the presence of pain and is often measured using the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Previous traditional cluster analyses of the 20-item CPAQ identified three patient clusters which differed across measures of patient functioning in meaningful ways. The aims of this study were to replicate the prior study in a new sample, using the more robust method of Latent Class Analysis (LCA), and to compare the cluster structure of the CPAQ and the shorter CPAQ-8. In total, 914 patients with chronic pain completed the CPAQ and a range of measures of psychological and physical function. Patient clusters identified via LCA were then used to compare patients across functional measures. Contrary to previous research, LCA demonstrated that a four-cluster structure was superior to a three cluster. Consistent with previous research, cluster membership based on patterns of pain willingness and activity engagement was significantly associated with specific patterns of psychological and physical function, in line with theoretical predictions. These cluster structures were similar for both CPAQ-20 and 8-items. These results provide further evidence of the relevance of chronic pain acceptance, and a more nuanced understanding of how the components of acceptance are related to function.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1095–1105
JournalThe Journal of Pain
Issue number11
Early online date20 Aug 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire
  • acceptance and commitment therapy
  • pain rehabilitation
  • latent class analysis
  • cluster membership
  • assessment


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