Neighbourhood disadvantage may be associated with brain health but the importance at different stages of the life course is poorly understood. Utilizing the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, we explored the relationship between residential neighbourhood deprivation from birth to late adulthood, and global and regional neuroimaging measures at age 73. We found that residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in mid- to late adulthood was associated with smaller total brain (β=-0.06; SE=0.02; n=390) and grey matter volume (β=-0.11; SE=0.03; n=390), thinner cortex (β=-0.15; SE=0.06; n=379), and lower general white matter fractional anisotropy (β=-0.19; SE=0.06; n=388). Regional analysis identified affected focal cortical areas and specific white matter tracts. Among individuals belonging to lower occupational social classes, the brain-neighbourhood associations were stronger, with the impact of neighbourhood deprivation accumulating across the life course. Our findings suggest that living in deprived neighbourhoods is associated with adverse brain morphologies, with occupational social class adding to the vulnerability.