BACKGROUND: Indonesia is facing serious air pollution. However, very few studies have been conducted to examine the health risks of air pollution in Indonesia, particularly for adolescents.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient particles with a diameter of <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in adolescents.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 482 adolescents aged 14-18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 2016. We finally included 469 (97.30%) participants who had no missing data for data analysis. We collected individual data on socio-demographics, behavioral habits, and health information through standardized questionnaires. Satellite-based PM2.5 concentrations from 2013 to 2016 were assigned based on participants' residential addresses. The association between PM2.5 and FPG was examined using a generalized linear regression model while FPG was modeled as a continuous variable. An ordered logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between PM2.5 and FPG categories.
RESULTS: Every 1 μg/m³ increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.34 mg/dL [95 confidence interval (95% CI): 0.08 mg/dL, 0.59 mg/dL] increase in FPG levels. Comparing with the low FPG level (under 86 mg/dL), every 1 μg/m³ increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 10.20% (95% CI: 1.60%, 19.80%) increase in the odds of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (100-125 mg/dL). Stratified analyses indicated greater effects on participants with hypertension [odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.57] and those had higher physical activities (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.57). Adolescents' sex, obesity status and different cutoff points of FPG did not modify the association between the exposure to PM2.5 and FPG levels.
CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with increased FPG levels in Indonesian non-diabetic adolescents.