Low plasma vitamin D is associated with adverse colorectal cancer survival after surgical resection, independent of systemic inflammatory response

P G Vaughan-Shaw, L Zgaga, L Y Ooi, E Theodoratou, M Timofeeva, V. Svinti, M Walker, F O'Sullivan, A Ewing, S Johnston, F V N Din, H Campbell, S M Farrington, M G Dunlop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: We assessed the effect of surgical resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) on perioperative plasma vitamin D (25OHD) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. We investigated the relationship between circulating vitamin D level and CRC survival.

Design: We sequentially sampled 92 patients undergoing CRC resection, and measured plasma 25OHD and CRP. For survival analyses, we assayed 25OHD and CRP in two temporally distinct CRC patient cohorts (n=2006, n=2100) and investigated the association between survival outcome, circulating vitamin D and systemic inflammatory response.

Results: Serial sampling revealed a postoperative fall (mean 17.3 nmol/L; p=3.6e-9) in plasma 25OHD (nadir days 1–2). CRP peaked 3–5 days postoperatively (143.1 mg/L; p=1.4e-12), yet the postoperative fall in 25OHD was independent of CRP. In cohort analyses, 25OHD was lower in the 12 months following operation (mean=48.8 nmol/L) than preoperatively (54.8 nmol/L; p=1.2e-5) recovering after 24 months (52.2 nmol/L; p=0.002). Survival analysis in American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I–III demonstrated associations between 25OHD tertile and CRC mortality (HR=0.69; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.91) and all-cause mortality (HR=0.68; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.85), and was independent of CRP. We observed interaction effects between plasma 25OHD and rs11568820 genotype (functional VDR polymorphism) with a strong protective effect of higher 25OHD only in patients with GG genotype (HR=0.51; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.81). We developed an online tool for predicted survival (https://apps.igmm.ed.ac.uk/mortalityCalculator/) that incorporates 25OHD with clinically useful predictive performance (area under the curve 0.77).

Conclusions: CRC surgery induces a fall in circulating 25OHD. Plasma 25OHD level is a prognostic biomarker with low 25OHD associated with poorer survival, particularly in those with rs11568820 GG genotype. A randomised trial of vitamin D supplementation after CRC surgery has compelling rationale.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-111
Number of pages9
JournalGut
Volume69
Issue number1
Early online date25 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020

Keywords

  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D,
  • CRP
  • vitamin D
  • colon
  • surgery

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