Lymphoma (malignant lymphoma, lymphosarcoma) is uncommon in horses in the United Kingdom. This report describes an unusual form of lymphoproliferative disease with features of lymphoma restricted to the central nervous system (CNS) and with no evidence of a primary lesion elsewhere. Immunohistochemical examination defined an overwhelming predominance of T lymphocytes with admixed B lymphocytes and activated macrophages. This case exemplifies the challenges associated with definitive diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disease of the equine CNS. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.