Recent work has provided evidence for genetic and molecular heterogeneity in colorectal cancers (CRCs) arising in patients with Lynch syndrome (LS), dividing these into two groups: G1 and G2. In terms of mutation and gene expression profile, G1 CRCs bear resemblance to sporadic CRCs with microsatellite instability (MSI), whereas G2 CRCs are more similar to microsatellite stable CRCs. Here we review the current state of knowledge on pathways of precursor progression to CRC in LS and how these might tie in with the new findings. Immunotherapies are an active field of research for MSI cancers and their potential use for cancer therapy for both sporadic and LS MSI cancers is discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.