Machine Translation: Phrase-Based, Rule-Based and Neural Approaches with Linguistic Evaluation

Vivien Macketanz, Eleftherios Avramidis, Aljoscha Burchardt, Jindrich Helcl, Ankit Srivastava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this article we present a novel linguistically driven evaluation method and apply it to the main approaches of Machine Translation (Rule-based, Phrase-based, Neural) to gain insights into their strengths and weaknesses in much more detail than provided by current evaluation schemes. Translating between two languages requires substantial modelling of knowledge about the two languages, about translation, and about the world. Using English-German IT-domain translation as a case-study, we also enhance the Phrase-based system by exploiting parallel treebanks for syntax-aware phrase extraction and by interfacing with Linked Open Data (LOD) for extracting named entity translations in a post decoding framework.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28 - 43
Number of pages16
JournalCybernetics and Information Technologies
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jun 2017


  • Machine translation
  • Parallel treebanks
  • Entity linking
  • Manual evaluation
  • Neural approaches


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