AIMS: To describe the characteristics, treatment, and mortality in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by use of chronic oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy.
METHODS: Using data from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes (GRACE), patient characteristics, treatment, and reperfusion strategies of STEMI patients on chronic OAC are described, and relevant variables compared with patients not on chronic OAC. Six-month post-discharge mortality rates were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard models.
RESULTS: Of 19,094 patients with STEMI, 574 (3.0%) were on chronic OAC at admission. Compared with OAC non-users, OAC users were older (mean age 73 vs. 65 years), more likely to be female (37 vs. 29%), were more likely to have a history of atrial fibrillation, prosthetic heart valve, venous thromboembolism, or stroke/transient ischaemic attack, had a higher mean GRACE risk score (166 vs. 145), were less likely to be Killip class I (68 vs. 82%), and were less likely to undergo catheterization/percutaneous coronary intervention (52 vs. 66%, respectively). Of the patients who underwent catheterization, fewer OAC users had the procedure done within 24 h of admission (56.5 vs. 64.5% of OAC non-users). In propensity-matched analyses (n=606), rates of in-hospital major bleeding and in-hospital and 6-month post-discharge mortality were similar for OAC users and OAC non-users (2.7 and 3.7%, p=0.64; 15 and 13%, p=0.56; 15 and 12%, p=0.47, respectively), rates of in-hospital recurrent myocardial infarction (8.6 and 2.0%, p<0.001) and atrial fibrillation (32 and 22%, p=0.004) were higher in OAC patients, and rates of 6-month stroke were lower (0.6 and 4.3%, p=0.038). Patients in both groups who underwent catheterization had lower mortality than those who did not undergo catheterization.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study to describe the characteristics and treatment of STEMI patients on chronic OAC. The findings suggest that patients on chronic OAC are less likely to receive guideline-indicated management, but have similar adjusted rates of in-hospital and 6-month mortality.