We have used a combination of chemical genetics, chromatin proteomics, and imaging to map the earliest chromatin transactions during vertebrate cell entry into mitosis. Chicken DT40 CDK1as cells undergo synchronous mitotic entry within 15 min following release from a 1NM-PP1-induced arrest in late G2. In addition to changes in chromatin association with nuclear pores and the nuclear envelope, earliest prophase is dominated by changes in the association of ribonucleoproteins with chromatin, particularly in the nucleolus, where pre-rRNA processing factors leave chromatin significantly before RNA polymerase I. Nuclear envelope barrier function is lost early in prophase, and cytoplasmic proteins begin to accumulate on the chromatin. As a result, outer kinetochore assembly appears complete by nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). Most interphase chromatin proteins remain associated with chromatin until NEBD, after which their levels drop sharply. An interactive proteomic map of chromatin transactions during mitotic entry is available as a resource at https://mitoChEP.bio.ed.ac.uk.
- chromatin proteomics
- cell cycle
- chemical genetics
- mitotic chromosome periphery compartment
- chicken DT40 cells