Metrics reloaded: recommendations for image analysis validation

Lena Maier-Hein, Annika Reinke, Patrick Godau, Minu D. Tizabi, Florian Buettner, Evangelia Christodoulou, Ben Glocker, Fabian Isensee, Jens Kleesiek, Michal Kozubek, Mauricio Reyes, Michael A. Riegler, Manuel Wiesenfarth, A. Emre Kavur, Carole H. Sudre, Michael Baumgartner, Matthias Eisenmann, Doreen Heckmann-Nötzel, Tim Rädsch, Laura AcionMichela Antonelli, Spyridon Bakas, Arriel Benis, Matthew B. Blaschko, M. Jorge Cardoso, Veronika Cheplygina, Beth A. Cimini, Gary S. Collins, Keyvan Farahani, Luciana Ferrer, Adrian Galdran, Bram van Ginneken, Robert Haase, Daniel A. Hashimoto, Michael M. Hoffman, Merel Huisman, Pierre Jannin, Charles E. Kahn, Dagmar Kainmueller, Bernhard Kainz, Alexandros Karargyris, Alan Karthikesalingam, Florian Kofler, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Anna Kreshuk, Tahsin Kurc, Bennett A. Landman, Geert Litjens, Amin Madani, Klaus Maier-Hein, Anne L. Martel, Peter Mattson, Erik Meijering, Bjoern Menze, Karel G. M. Moons, Henning Müller, Brennan Nichyporuk, Felix Nickel, Jens Petersen, Nasir Rajpoot, Nicola Rieke, Julio Saez-Rodriguez, Clara I. Sánchez, Shravya Shetty, Maarten van Smeden, Ronald M. Summers, Abdel A. Taha, Aleksei Tiulpin, Sotirios A. Tsaftaris, Ben Van Calster, Gaël Varoquaux, Paul F. Jäger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Increasing evidence shows that flaws in machine learning (ML) algorithm validation are an underestimated global problem. In biomedical image analysis, chosen performance metrics often do not reflect the domain interest, and thus fail to adequately measure scientific progress and hinder translation of ML techniques into practice. To overcome this, we created Metrics Reloaded, a comprehensive framework guiding researchers in the problem-aware selection of metrics. Developed by a large international consortium in a multistage Delphi process, it is based on the novel concept of a problem fingerprint—a structured representation of the given problem that captures all aspects that are relevant for metric selection, from the domain interest to the properties of the target structure(s), dataset and algorithm output. On the basis of the problem fingerprint, users are guided through the process of choosing and applying appropriate validation metrics while being made aware of potential pitfalls. Metrics Reloaded targets image analysis problems that can be interpreted as classification tasks at image, object or pixel level, namely image-level classification, object detection, semantic segmentation and instance segmentation tasks. To improve the user experience, we implemented the framework in the Metrics Reloaded online tool. Following the convergence of ML methodology across application domains, Metrics Reloaded fosters the convergence of validation methodology. Its applicability is demonstrated for various biomedical use cases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-212
JournalNature Methods
Volume21
Issue number2
Early online date12 Feb 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 12 Feb 2024

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