Microarray analyses were performed on yeast strains mutant for the nuclear-specific exosome components Rrp6p and Rrp47p/Lrp1p or the core component Rrp41p/Ski6p, at permissive temperature and following transfer to 37 degrees C. 339 mRNAs showed clearly altered expression levels, with an unexpectedly high degree of heterogeneity in the different exosome mutants. In contrast, no clear alterations were seen in strains lacking the cytoplasmic exosome component Ski7p. 27 mRNAs that were overexpressed in each strain defective in the nuclear exosome are good candidates for regulation by nuclear turnover. These included the mRNA for the autoregulated RNA-binding protein Nrd1p. Northern and primer extension analyses confirmed the elevated NRD1 mRNA levels in exosome mutants, and revealed the accumulation of truncated 5' fragments of the mRNA. These contain a predicted Nrd1p-binding site, potentially sequestering the protein and disrupting its autoregulation. Several genes located immediately downstream of independently transcribed snoRNA genes were overexpressed in exosome mutants, presumably due to stabilization of the products of transcription termination read-through. Further analyses indicated that many snoRNA and snRNA genes are inefficiently terminated, but read-through transcripts into downstream ORFs are normally rapidly degraded by the exosome. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.