Microwave-Assisted Evaporative Crystallization of Niflumic Acid for Particle Size Reduction

Norbert Radacsi, Joop H. ter Horst, Georgios D. Stefanidis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Microwave irradiation can significantly speed up solvent evaporation in crystallization processes, resulting in rapid crystallization and reduced particle size. A single-mode microwave setup was used for evaporative crystallization of the model pharmaceutical compound, niflumic acid. Production of crystals by microwave irradiation offers a novel way to particles for drug formulation solving formulation problems of drugs with low solubility and permeability in class II of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. In this work, niflumic acid was produced using microwave irradiation and conventional heating. The final product size, as measured by a particle size analyzer, was reduced when increasing the evaporation rate using microwave irradiation. X-ray diffraction proved that the crystal form after microwave-assisted crystallization remained unchanged.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4186-4189
Number of pages4
JournalCrystal Growth and Design
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013



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