Mirror writing in pre-school children: a pilot study

Roberto Cubelli, Sergio Della Sala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Mirror writing refers to the production of individual letters, whole words or sentences in reverse direction. Unintentional mirror writing has been observed in young children learning to write and interpreted as the manifestation of different cognitive impairments. We report on mirror writing instances in a sample of 108 pre-school children. Results showed MW to be age-related but independent from handedness and left-right discrimination abilities. We propose an account of mirror writing as reflecting dissociation between acquired motor programmes for letter shape composition and unspecified spatial direction of hand movements. Before learning to write, the child's directional cognitive system is assumed to be dichotomous, thus inducing the production of randomly oriented asymmetrical letters.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-4
Number of pages4
JournalCognitive Processing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Analysis of Variance
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Functional Laterality
  • Humans
  • Judgment
  • Male
  • Orientation
  • Pilot Projects
  • Psychomotor Performance
  • Writing


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