Mixed Matrix Membranes Adsorbers (MMMAs) for the Removal of Uremic Toxins from Dialysate

Matilde De Pascale, Maria Grazia De Angelis*, Cristiana Boi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

We developed Mixed Matrix Membrane Adsorbers (MMMAs) formed by cellulose acetate and various sorbent particles (activated carbon, zeolites ZSM‐5 and clinoptilolite) for the removal of urea, creatinine and uric acid from aqueous solutions, to be used in the regeneration of spent dialysate water from Hemodialysis (HD). This process would allow reducing the disproportionate amount of water consumed and permits the development of closed‐loop HD devices, such as wearable artificial kidneys. The strategy of MMMAs is to combine the high permeability of porous membranes with the toxin‐capturing ability of embedded particles. The water permeability of the MMMAs ranges between 600 and 1500 L/(h m2 bar). The adsorption of urea, the limiting toxin, can be improved of about nine times with respect to the pure cellulose acetate membrane. Flow experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the process in a real HD therapy session.

Original languageEnglish
Article number203
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 9 Feb 2022

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Activated carbon
  • Dialysis
  • Porous mixed matrix membrane adsorbers
  • Urea
  • Uremic toxins
  • Water purification
  • Zeolite


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