Mjölnir: a miniature triaxial rock deformation apparatus for 4D synchrotron X-ray microtomography

Ian Butler, Florian Fusseis, Alexis Cartwright-taylor, Michael Flynn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

An X-ray transparent experimental triaxial rock deformation apparatus, here named `Mjölnir', enables investigations of brittle-style rock deformation and failure, as well as coupled thermal, chemical and mechanical processes relevant to a range of Earth subsurface environments. Designed to operate with cylindrical samples up to 3.2 mm outside-diameter and up to 10 mm length, Mjölnir can attain up to 50 MPa confining pressure and in excess of 600 MPa axial load. The addition of heaters extends the experimental range to temperatures up to 140°C. Deployment of Mjolnir on synchrotron beamlines indicates that full 3D datasets may be acquired in a few seconds to a few minutes, meaning full 4D investigations of deformation processes can be undertaken. Mjölnir is constructed from readily available materials and components and complete technical drawings are included in the supporting information.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1681-1687
JournalJournal of Synchrotron Radiation
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2020


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