MMV-Net: A Multiple Measurement Vector Network for Multi-frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography

Zhou Chen, Jinxi Xiang, Pierre Olivier Bagnaninchi, Yunjie Yang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Multi-frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography (mfEIT) is an emerging biomedical imaging modality to reveal frequency-dependent conductivity distributions in biomedical ap-plications. Conventional model-based image reconstruction meth-ods suffer from low spatial resolution, unconstrained frequency correlation and high computational cost. Deep learning has been extensively applied in solving the EIT inverse problem in biomed-ical and industrial process imaging. However, most existing learning-based approaches deal with the single-frequency setup, which is inefficient and ineffective when extended to the multi-frequency setup. This paper presents a Multiple Measurement Vector (MMV) model based learning algorithm named MMV-Net to solve the mfEIT image reconstruction problem. MMV-Net considers the correlations between mfEIT images and unfolds the update steps of the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers for the MMV problem (MMV-ADMM). The non-linear shrinkage operator associated with the weighted l2,1 regularization term of MMV-ADMM is generalized in MMV-Net with a cascade of a Spatial Self-Attention module and a Convolutional Long Short-Term Memory (ConvLSTM) module to better capture intra- and inter-frequency dependencies. The proposed MMV-Net was validated on our Edinburgh mfEIT Dataset and a series of comprehensive experiments. The results show superior image quality, convergence performance, noise robustness and computational efficiency against the conventional MMV-ADMM and the state-of-the-art deep learning methods.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Early online date9 Mar 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 9 Mar 2022


  • Deep Learning
  • Electrical impedance tomography (EIT)
  • image reconstruction
  • multifrequency
  • multiple measurement vectors
  • MMV
  • EIT
  • Correlation
  • Conductivity
  • multiple measurement vector (MMV)
  • Frequency measurement
  • electrical impedance tomography (EIT)
  • Image reconstruction
  • Deep learning
  • Electrical impedance tomography
  • Biomedical imaging


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